II. introduction generale








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II. INTRODUCTION GENERALE


L’introduction doit énoncer de manière explicite les points essentiels qui structurent fondamentalement le travail du mémoire et elle doit tenir sur une page. Il s’agit ici de rappeler le titre du mémoire entre guillemets, d’expliquer les raisons du choix du sujet, de justifier le sujet (c’est-à-dire de montrer son importance et son apport dans l’évolution de la discipline). (The background recalls the title of the project, explains the reason of the choice, justify the title and describes the major themes of the research, relating them to the past, present or future.) i.e. show its importance in the evaluation of the discipline
  1. Question de départ


Traduire un projet de recherche sous la forme d’une question de départ n’est utile que si cette question est correctement formulée. En ce sens, la question de départ constitue un premier moyen de mise en œuvre d’une des dimensions essentielles de la démarche scientifique. La question de départ doit respecter les qualités de clarté, de précision, de faisabilité et de pertinence.

La clarté et la précision. La question de départ doit être claire et précise. Elle ne doit être ni trop vague, ni trop embrouillées ni trop longue. Exemple :

La question doit être faisable ; Il faut vérifier le caractère réaliste ou non du travail par rapport aux ressources humain, matériel et technique dont on dispose. Exemple

La question doit être pertinente. Une bonne question de départ ne doit être ni moralisatrice ni d’ordre philosophique. Exemple :

Elle doit être ouverte avec la possibilité d’apporter plusieurs réponses différentes. Exemple. Elle doit question doit porter sur quelque chose qui existe et qui fonctionne déjà Exemple. Une bonne question ne doit pas comporter une réponse purement descriptive  mais aura une intention compréhensive et explicative Exemple.
  1. Contexte d’étude


Le contexte de l’étude énonce les rapports du sujet avec l’actualité et l’environnement scientifique. Il peut-être politique, social, juridique, économique ou culturel. C’est une sorte d’entonnoir qui part du général au particulier et définir les contours essentiels du sujet.
  1. Délimitation du sujet


La délimitation de l’étude est triple :

Spatiale : il faut indiquer l’espace géographique concerné par l’étude (le pays, la région, la ville, le quartier etc.) et justifier le choix de cet espace.

Temporelle : dire quelle est la période qui couvre l’étude. Ex : Notre recherche se situe entre la période allant de 2005 à 2010.Il est important de justifier le choix de la période retenue pour son étude.

Disciplinaire : cette dernière précise si le sujet sera traité sous l’angle de la sociologie du développement, de l’anthropologie de la santé, de l’économie politique et les disciplines connexes : droit, histoire, philosophie, etc.

  • WHAT DO WE MEAN BY DELIMITATION AND LIMITATIONS IN RESEARCH/PROJECT PROPOSALS?

  • Delimitation describes the scope of the study. In other words, the researcher describes the boundaries of his research under the subheading: Delimitation.

  • ILLUSTRATION

  • A researcher (Oyedele, 1995) proceeded to conduct a research entitled:“Analysis of the Push and Pull Factors of Migration in Ejigbo Local Government area, Osun State, Nigeria”.

  • The researcher’s subjects were Return Migrants. That is those community members who left their community for some time and later returned. These persons fall into different categories depending on the number of years they spent outside their community. There are those who spent one year, two years, three years etc. as the case may be. A factor which made a migrant to spend just one year in this destination may not be the factor which made another to spend four years in his destination. So, under this condition, the researcher needed to define the scope of his study in terms of the actual subjects he is studying and this he actually did. The researcher’s delimitation in this case was put as follows:

  • 1.7 Delimitation of the study

  • “The investigation is only concerned with those return-migrants who were in their destinations for not less than 5years. Hence, the push and pull factors under consideration in this study were those that made migrants to migrate from their source for five years and above “(Oyedele, 1995).

  • The above specification is necessary to allow for the replication of the replication of the study somewhere else or in the same study area, and to know to what extent the results of the study area, and to know to what extent the results of the study could be generalized.

  • The delimitation also indicates the actual environment or area where a research is to be conducted if such is not indicated in the research title. Assuming a research is titled as thus:

  • ‘A study of the Management practices and Constraints of Honey Bee Farmers’.

  • It will be confusing to know where the research is to cover-whether a community, a local government area or a state. It will also be confusing to know the category of farmers being referred to, whether small scale, mediumor large scale farmers. To avoid this confusion, the following may be stated as the delimitation of the aforementioned research:

  • ‘The proposed Study will be conducted in Imo state of Nigeria. It will focus on small scale honey bee farmers only. Both male and female farmers in this category will be interviewed’.

  • If the researcher has other clarifications to make, such could be included as well.There is normally the anticipation of likely problems in future events due to uncontrollable intervening factors (variables). Research exercise is not left out in this regard. The researcher is to state in his research proposal; those problems he anticipates will in one way or the other impede the progress of his research work. To state these problems is not enough, the researcher needs to also state what he intends to do to reduce the magnitude of the problems or to eliminate them completely. All these the researcher will state under the limitations of the study.

  • ILLUSTRATION

  • Consider the research entitled: ‘A survey of out of school Rural Youth and their Employment in Opobo Town, River State.

  • This research may not be executed without constraints. In trying to execute the research, the researcher may envisage the following constraints (limitations) which he may discuss under the Limitations subheading as thus:

  • 1.7 Limitations of the Study

  • Note. This subheading is also identified as 1.7 because it is usually combined with the ‘Delimitation’ already discussed (refer to exercise 5).

  • ‘In carrying out this study, it is envisaged that the respondents may not be able to read and: or understand some contents of the survey instrument, given their poor literacy level. Also, the respondents may misconstrue the purpose of the study; they may feel that government intends to expose their educational deficiencies through the research. This may make them unwilling to supply needed primary data. Which will invariably affect both the duration of the research and the research results? However, the researcher intends to reduce or eliminate the above limitations by using community leaders to educate the youth (the respondents) on the purpose of the research before the primary data gathering exercise. Also, the contents of the survey instruments world be simplified as much as possible, while enumerators for the primary data collection will be trained on the survey instrument to be able to make explanations to the respondents where need be’

  • During the research proper, if things appear the same way as they were thought of, the researcher will still report what he has in the research proposal in his final research report. But he may encounter problems different from what he envisaged at the research proposal stage. In this case, the researcher is expected to state what he actually encountered and no more what he felt would have been the constraints at the research proposal stage. This fact should be well noted by students.


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